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Posted by on Dec 22, 2012 in Breathing Emergencies | 1 comment

What is Anaphylaxis

Anaphylaxis is a life threatening condition that results due to an allergic reaction when a person is exposed to an allergen he or she is allergic to. This may cause shock, a drastic drop in blood pressure and breathing difficulties. People with allergies may respond to an allergen within a few minutes or exposure. Sometimes, the reaction is delayed so the allergic reaction does not occur with an apparent trigger. Due to its severity, it is essential that immediate medical help is sought for treatment of the condition.

Causes

Anaphylaxis occurs when your body’s immune system reacts to a trigger or allergen that may give rise to an allergic reaction. This is a result of the immune system producing large amounts of histamine and other chemicals to counter the exposure. Even a small amount of the allergen may trigger anaphylaxis. The following are the most common allergens that cause anaphylaxis are:

  • Insect stings
  • Medication
  • Dairy products
  • Fish
  • Shellfish
  • Peanuts
  • Tree nuts
  • Eggs
  • Wheat
  • Soy

Symptoms

Anaphylaxis is a systemic condition, which means the whole body is affected. The reaction may vary as some experience mild symptoms while some experience, severe life threatening symptoms.

Symptoms affecting the airways are most common, as 70% of the cases experience the following symptoms:

  • Wheezing
  • Coughing
  • Sneezing
  • Runny nose
  • Breathlessness
  • Breathing difficulties
  • Rough voice
  • Difficulty in swallowing

The second most common symptoms occurring in 40% of the cases are those affecting the GI tract:

  • Vomiting and nausea
  • Diarrhea
  • Abdominal cramps

Heart and circulation problems occur in about 35% of cases:

  • Drop in blood pressure
  • Abnormal heart beat (too fast or too slow)
  • Confusion
  • Fainting
  • Skin may turn pale or blue
  • Dizziness

The skin and mouth are also affected in about 20% of the cases:

  • Itchiness
  • Swelling of the mouth, lips, tongue and hands also called Angioedema
  • Hives
  • A pins and needles or a tingly feeling in the skin

Other symptoms include headaches, red or itchy watery eyes, uterine contractions, a metallic taste in your tongue, anxiety and irritability. There are many cases in which casualties feel as if they are about to die, this condition is called ‘feeling of impending doom’. In most severe cases, the person may suffer from low blood pressure, unconsciousness or difficulties in breathing. It is important that you call for emergency medical help immediately and not wait for symptoms to fade away.

Treatment

Allergic reactions may persist until the allergen is in contact with the casualty’s body. If help does not show up quickly, you may try to remove the allergen yourself.

  • Topical allergens such as poison oak may be removed by washing the area of the body in contact with it with soap as soon as possible
  • In case of bee stings, it does not matter how you remove the stinger, just make sure you remove it quickly. It is like removing a splinter, so not a lot of equipment is necessary
  • Food and drugs are often ingested or injected therefore; there is nothing much you can do about it until medical help shows up

Epinephrine

Epinephrine or adrenaline is a drug that is used to stop an anaphylactic reaction. The drug is contained in an automatic syringe which you have to push against the casualty’s body to inject the drug. You must have a

Epinephrine Injector for Allergic Reactions

Epinephrine Injector for Allergic Reactions

prescription for the drug and you must carry it at all times if you are prone to suffer from allergic reactions. Epinephrine becomes a vital lifesaver that quickly controls an allergy within a few minutes, during a severe anaphylaxis attack.

Here are some steps to help you use the device carefully:

  1. Remove the gray cap off the back of the apparatus and firmly press the back into the casualty’s thigh
  2. Keep holding for 10 seconds. It is ideal to use the syringe directly on the skin but if there is a barrier such as clothing, do not try to take it off and continue the procedure right through it
  3. Once you have used the syringe, you will notice a needle at the back of the device. Carefully dispose the needle in a safe place so that nobody else is infected.

Additional Training

By taking a St Mark James training course (either standard, childcare or emergency first aid) you will learn proper usage of EpiPen’s (and other epinephrine injectors) , receive “hands on” training and learn about the legal implications of aiding with medications.

How to Use an EpiPen Video

1 Comment

  1. to give Piriton first and then epi when the symptoms becmoe worse then that is what you should do. Remember allergists do this for a living. Our action plan says to give 1 dose of benadryl if symptoms becmoe worse and breathing becmoes labored administer epi-pen. If we are traveling we have an epi-pen with 2 injectors. So our instructions for when we are not close to a hospital is to administer 2nd epi-pen if the first does not slow the response. You can bring someone back if they go into cardiac arrest you can’t physically remove the protein causing anaphylaxis from the body. Our babysitter has a child anaphylactic to eggs and peanuts he takes prednisone and then the epi. Everyone can have a varied plan. Follow what you are instructed to do. Our son knows he goes no where without his back pack! Good luck .you don’t need to live in fear!Add: Remember to educate your child on what he needs to avoid and look for. My son is 3 and if anyone offers him food he knows to say peanuts yucky. At large gatherings I have made him a fun necklace that says I have food allergies don’t offer me food If you make it decorative people will look at it because kids are cute and they want to talk to them. And you want to know you are safe by letting them play. We have also been known to announce to smaller gatherings about his allergy. Be proactive without being that freaky over protective parent.

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